Easily, fuel injection by a mile.
While carburetion may still hold a small advantage in the smoothness of off-to-on throttle transitions (like getting back on the gas from a closed throttle in a corner, or when driving at a very low speed, particularly with a manual transmission), modern fuel injection is better in almost every other way. Better drivability and fuel economy, better power. Fewer problems following storage. Pretty much maintenance free.
The one case where I might prefer carburetion is for a very simple vehicle used in remote (or otherwise) areas where parts and diagnostic equipment for fuel injection are not readily available. But I live in North America, and modern fuel injection systems are extremely reliable, so that is not much of a concern to me.
I'm speaking mostly about motorcycles, as there hasn't been a new car or truck sold here with a carburetor for 30 years or more. Even on motorcycles it is increasingly rare.
I'll tell you what I don't miss: trying to stabilize fuel and drain float bowls in the fall in the hope that the bike will start and run properly in the spring. I would usually try to get out for a ride at least a couple times through the winter just to run some fresh gas through the carburetor. Never really had any trouble but I always worried about it.
I did lose a couple of two stroke engines due to their carburetors getting clogged up in storage, resulting in a lean running condition, which led to detonation and pistons with holes burned through them. This isn't usually a concern with four stroke engines, they'll just run like crap in that condition.